Influence and effect by the production of palm oil plantation on the natural ecology ,especially the standard of it, is relatively complicated.
For example, the problematic use of water resources is actual and very specific. A rainforest is humid by nature, the soil retains the water, it soaks and absorbs it like a sponge. The canopy of leaves in the treetops protects the soil and its humidity. If the forest is cut and destroyed, the heat of the sun dries up the fertile upper layer of the forest ground. The channelling of water into canals and draining water accelerates this process. Water is channelled from the forest lands as the palm oil does not thrive in the moist soil conditions.
In the dried up soil rainwater very quickly evaporates, and the loss of valuable nutrients makes the forest soil far less fertile. During heavy tropical rain showers the water is no longer streaming slowly and controlled into the rivers, but is running unabated into the countryside eventually causing dangerous flooding. Theses mud streams, carrying the loose topsoil of the forests are silting up rivers and blocking shipping traffic by releasing too much sand and debris. This can cause problems for the people down stream from the destroyed forests who are dependend on these rivers for transportation.
Oil palms require constant fertilisation due to being planted in unsuitable soils. Additionally, as the are a mono crop they have no natural immunity or interdependence available to them and require pesticides against the plagues and diseases that can occur when the natural biodiversity of a region is unbalanced. These diseases tend to be very persistent as a result of their dominance over mono-cultural plantings. One reason for this is the lack of ecological balance as a result of deforestation.
Furthermore the pesticides and artificial fertiliser run off is polluting the rivers and has a negative effect on the ecological circumstances for the plants and fish life of the river systems. The pollution imposes an enormous danger for the health of the population dependend on this water for various purposes, like drinking, cooking, washing and fishery. On top of this it is imposing extra costs on the communities by forcing them to buy clean, plastic bottled drinking water that requires transportation from elsewhere.The effects of the forest destruction spreads in circumference far beyond the region of the forest and the introduced oil palm plantations.
The creation of oil palm plantations disrupt the (micro)climate. As a result of deforestation and thus dehydration, the climate gets drier and hotter. The regional climate change is also noticeable in Tembak, where fruit trees and plants show less productivity.
The conclusion might be that the creation of palm oil palm plantations on Borneo have a led to much more significant and complex influence on biodiversity that could prove fatal to all living things.